Ensuring that the retrospective makes a real difference
This post is only partly in response to an observation made here that retrospectives were found to be generally useless. Having said that the practical tips in the above post are valuable.
I think the feeling (or even reality in some places) that retrospectives are a distraction is due to a few factors
1. The software development organisation, as a rule, doesn’t have a culture of self-improvement (neither developers nor managers)
2. Many teams struggle just to get to the sprint end date meeting the sprint goals and lose stamina by then (an important tip is covering this). Oh, yes I’ll not be in the least surprised if the cause of this is organisational pressure applied onto the development team. Similarly this pressure will lead to ineffective retrospectives.
3. Poor visibility, hence support for getting action items done (also mentioned and dissected here)
Retrospective is the driver for change generated by the team (and possibly anything that the SM points out). So after the lovely discussion how do we actually make the change? Hopefully the Scrum Master and the team have identified action items (not always easy, not always correctly done), but even so, some of them will be straightforward.
It is all a matter of perspective: Encourage all concerned to view the retrospective as a driver of change; and I think it’ll have a very different effect. At some point (ideally the beginning) of the project, or when the team is getting stuck, floundering etc., it has to be said “There are things that are not quite right around here. We need to change, bit by bit; Let’s use the retro”. Wonderbar! but how?
TIP: Suppose these action items were to be put into the Product backlog. This is an extension of suggestion here. A bit radical, eh what!?! as normally the product backlog is reserved to deliver something for the PO or external stakeholder.
caveats: Some action items need a lot of work/effort to be made and teams tend to drop these items from their to-dos, so these could go into the product backlog. Not all action items need go into the product backlog, as some can be done by the Scrum Master, some by the development manager (hopefully) and some are simple to do.
Coming back to the suggestion: What is the effect of putting retrospective items into the product-backlog? It certainly gets attention (visibility), and these items also get budgeted. More importantly a lot of careful thought based on experience WILL get acted upon. But there is something of a dilemma here, as then the PO gets to prioritize the action items! How would a PO react? What does the PO’s reaction tell us? Something of a litmus test, as to how well the whole team, SM and product owner understand the principles and imbibe the ethos of Scrum. This may often mean that the coach/Scrum Master will have some convincing/cajoling to do. However, while it may take time, eventually the team and organisation around it can see the effect of doing/ignoring retrospective action items (as there is greater visibility). Yes, it also gives the Scrum Master a great handle to encourage improvement via these action items.
WHEN NOT TO RETROSPECT: (ideally a separate post, but I’ve the first quality of a programmer)
I’ve as a coach often observed teams which struggle to meet the sprint end deadline and led and facilitated their retrospectives. A team that takes it’s commitment seriously is at a disadvantage, as they have been working overtime for the last few days (nights!!?!). This usually means that their sprint review meeting, in such circumstances doesn’t go like a bomb, (don’t bother this link if you are from the UK/antipodes). By the time they are done with the review they are tired, somewhat dispirited and possibly uninterested. TIP: Give the team some recovery time. Don’t hurry into a retrospective under such a sepulchral atmosphere on the same day. Don’t hurry the retro to get on with the next sprint. You almost surely will be failing to learn. An ineffective hurried retro is time wasted, a longer one with sensible action points (which get acted upon) is valuable learning and a “velocity+morale” booster. If you must, hold a 30 min debrief. Especially, if the next day is a working day, people will be late, and the retrospective must be conducted well. So the main body of the retrospective should be around lunch the day and concluded after lunch. This is to give team members time, discuss formally(during meeting) as well as informally (over lunch). In case the sprint ended on Friday evening, we can conduct the retrospective on Monday morning (with a long coffee break in between). But do make sure that at least three action items are identified and people commit to acting upon them (maybe put them into the product backlog). There must be visible progress over time, else each following retrospective would become more useless than the last (ironically, the reverse result for the retrospective itself, opposed it it’s intention for the project).
I’ve generally seen teams benefit from decently conducted retrospectives. As time passes and the retrospective action items become larger and more difficult this improvement slows down. This is where higher visibility (as suggested here) and perseverance will pay dividends. Good luck and God speed.